Table of Contents
“Industar” is the name of the era of industrialization of the USSR. Under this name were produced photographic lenses of the “Tessar” scheme, distinguished by increased image sharpness.
About Industar lens series
Optical lenses with the name “Industar” are made according to the “Tessar”
design , developed in 1902 by an employee of the “K. Zeiss ”(Carl Zeiss) by Dr. P. Rudolph (Paul Rudolph).
This is, most likely, the most common scheme in the entire history of lens design – such lenses were produced by many companies in many countries around the world under different names: Ektar, Elmar, Xenar, etc. Several dozen different Industars were produced in the Soviet Union. Among them, perhaps the most popular is Industar-61. The calculation was carried out by the famous Soviet optician Academician G. Slyusarev and V. Sokolova. The lens was produced as a standard lens for FEDs and as a replaceable lens for Zenits. When developing a lens, among other things, it is necessary to quite accurately fulfill the Petzval condition – the condition for correcting the curvature of the image surface, as well as correcting chromatic aberrations. To reduce the latter, always apply at least two types of optical glass or other material – most often these are crowns in positive lenses and flint – in negative ones. (Positive – those that are thicker in the center than at the edges, negative – vice versa.) Crohn is glass with a low refractive index and high dispersion (the difference between refractive indices for rays of different colors).
Flint has a high refractive index and low dispersion. So, the simultaneous correction of chromatic aberrations and curvature can lead to too large: the optical power of the lens and the curvature of its surface. And in this case, higher-order aberrations increase. To avoid this, the so-called anomalous combinations of glasses are used – superheavy crowns (for example, lanthanum) and light flints, when, against the usual, the refractive index of the crown is greater than that of the flint. One STK lens is approximately equivalent to two conventional glass.
Patent applications for the formulation of lanthanum glasses began to appear in the late 1930s, and industrial melts were made in the USA by Eastman-Kodak, apparently in 1941. The use of glasses of the STK type with a high refractive index in lenses makes it possible to correct not only those aberrations that were discussed above. The developer, in general, gets more freedom and the ability to reduce astigmatism, spherical and spherochromatic aberrations, however, not for all schemes. In multi-lens systems, the use of super-heavy crowns may not give an effect compared to conventional glasses. Back in the 1940s, the same Kodak company produced the Aero Ektar lens, which was installed on aerial photography cameras of “flying fortresses”. In one half of the lens, the positive lenses were made of lanthanum glass, and as it turned out,
Professor D.S. Volosov calculated the version of the Aero-Ektar with ordinary glasses. An experimental sample was made, which had a quality no worse than the “Aero-Ectar”. However, here is the opposite example: the Geogon multi-lens lens developed by the American optician Baker. No attempts by Soviet opticians to replace lanthanum glasses in Geogon with ordinary ones made it possible to preserve the image quality. And in conclusion – one more thing. The four-lens “Industar-61” has almost the same resolving power as the six-lens “Helios-81”. Was it worth putting six lenses where you can get by with four? But the fact is that “Helios-81” conveys the
contrast of small details much better . Naturally, a better result can be achieved with six lenses.
AND ABOUT. Baklanov, 1998
Industar – from “Industry”, “Industrialization” with the traditional for photographic optics ending “-ar” – an extensive family of mass four-lens anastigmata, similar in optical schemes to the German Tessars. These were the first lenses in the country to be produced in large series – industrially and in the era of the so-called. “Industrialization”.
The “star theme”, traditional for Russian optics, is also present in the name – star – a star in English. The first known lens with this name (Industar-4 4/210) was developed at GOI in 1931. It is interesting that the first years at KMZ in internal documents abbreviated names of the lenses “Industar” were written as: “OI” (OI-22, OI-50), where “O” presumably means “Objective”.
Lenses table “Industar”
|Name||Focal length, mm||Aperture ratio 1: n||Angle of view|
Standard coated lens. Equipped with an iris diaphragm. Produced in a folding and rigid frame. Replica Leitz Elmar lens for Leica II camera.
Intended for rangefinder cameras “Zorkiy”, and with the index “U” – for enlargers. Later, in a shorter frame, it was used as a standard for the first Zenits – Zenit and Zenit-S.
At the end of the 1950s, it was recalculated and replaced with a higher quality “Industar-50”.
Design peculiarity – despite the fact that the same lens mount with a focal distance of 28.8 mm was used on the FED and Zorky cameras – the Industar-22 folding lens is difficult to mount on the FED-2, -3, -4 cameras ,-five”. The tubular “Industar-22” has a button that fixes the distance scale at “infinity”. The distance between the lens landing plane and the body of the Zorkikhs is slightly larger than that of FEDs; on FEDs this button sometimes touches the body and does not allow the lens to be screwed in completely.
The main lens of Zorky, Zenit, Kristall cameras, produced as a replacement for the outdated Industar-22. The most famous and mass version marked “Industar-50-2” was equipped with cameras “Zenith” with M42 thread and without a pressure diaphragm drive. In more expensive configurations, the alternative to Industar was the faster Helios-44-2.
The Industar-50 lens was produced in different versions: for photographic enlargers; with retractable frame; in a rigid frame for rangefinder and SLR cameras with M39 × 1 thread; also produced a version of “Industar-50-2” with M42 × 1 thread. For rangefinder cameras it was produced in two versions – in a folding frame, similar to the Industar-22, and a rigid one, unified with lenses for Zenit SLRs. In the rangefinder “Industar-50”, the extension ring and the pusher of the rangefinder were easily unscrewed, after which the lens could be mounted on Zenit cameras with an M39 × 1 mount. The lens was designed in 1953 by Mikhail Maltsev.
It was also produced at the Lytkarinsky (LZOS) and Kazan (KOMZ) optical-mechanical plants.
- “Industar-50U” (I-50U) – option for photographic enlargers, produced by LZOS and FOZ (Feodosia Optical Plant)
- “Industar-50-2” – a variant with M42 × 1 mount for small format SLR cameras.
- “Industar-50S”, “Industar-50MT” – options in a special frame that allows you to shoot through an endoscope. They were intended for Zenit-MT and Zenit-MT1 cameras, respectively. Aperture ratio 1: 7.
Lens “Industar-61 L / Z-MS”. The letters in the name mean: “L” – lanthanum; “З” – for SLR cameras; “MC” – multilayer achromatic enlightenment.
An enlightened medium aperture lens, probably the most popular of the Industar series. The calculation was carried out by the well-known Soviet opticians Academician G. Slyusarev and V. Sokolova in accordance with the trends in the use of the latest types of optical glass with rare earth elements. In both positive lenses, a super-heavy lanthanum crown “STK-6” is used.
This glass has a high refractive index, allowing you to obtain the same optical power with a lower curvature of surfaces and, as a consequence, reduced aberrations. It cost 16 rubles. Excellent optical characteristics of “Industar-61” are obtained due to the use of a lanthanum superheavy crown STK6 in both positive lenses. For serial and non-serial samples of this lens, there are similar data on the resolution in the literature. This makes one think that its design is insensitive to manufacturing inaccuracies.
It was produced in different frames for different types of small format photographic equipment. On frames of various versions, the focal lengths could be designated as 50, 52, 53 and 55 mm, although the exact value is 52.42 mm.
The four-lens “Industar-61” has almost the same resolution as the six-lens “Helios-81”. It was used as a regular one for “FEDs” and replaceable for “Zenits”. Designation “D” means the version for rangefinder cameras, and “З” – for SLR cameras. In the mirror version, the frame could be strongly extended, allowing macro photography at a distance of up to 0.3 meters without extension rings. For excellent sharpness and high contrast, in many cases photographers preferred the Industar-61 L / Z to the regular Helios-44.
In the USSR, it was produced at three factories. At the Kharkov FED plant, modifications were made:
- “Industar-61” is a standard lens for rangefinder cameras “FED-2”, “FED-3”, and “FED-4”.
- “Industar-61 L / D” is a standard lens for rangefinder cameras “FED-3”, “FED-4”, and “FED-5”. Modification “Industar-61”
- “Industar-61 L / D” for the prototype of the “FED-6 TTL” camera. Released in small quantities.
- “Industar-61” – bayonet version for cameras with a central shutter “FED-10”.
- Industar-61 is a non-replaceable lens for the FED-11 camera (FED-Atlas).
At KMZ, modifications were made in small quantities:
- “Industar-61-Z” – for SLR cameras. It was developed by the very first of the lens modifications for SLR cameras. Mount M39 × 1 / 45.2. Resolution (center / edge) 38/25 lines / mm, size Ø57 / 55. Aperture presetting ring.
- “Industar-61A” is a variant with an aspherical lens .
- “Industar-61M” – for Zenit cameras with M42 × 1 mount and a jumping diaphragm. Equipped with an “AM” switch. Dimensions Ø59.5 × 58mm.
Modifications were made at LZOS:
- “Industar-61 L” – for rangefinder cameras with M39 × 1 mount, 12 diaphragm blades.
- “Industar-61 L / Z” – for SLR cameras with M42 × 1 mount.
- “Industar-61 L / Z MS” – with multilayer coating – for SLR cameras with M42 × 1 mount.
Lenses “Industar” on [PRO] PHOTO
- History. Lenses of the “Industar” series
- Industar-22 M39 50mm f / 3.5
- Industar-50 M39 50mm f / 3.5
- Industar-50-2 M42 50mm f / 3.5
- Industar-61 M42 50mm f / 2.8 L / Z MS
- Industar-61 M39 53mm f / 2.8 L / D
Using Industry lenses on modern cameras
To work on digital SLRs you need a lens-to-camera adapter. The easiest way is to install Industar with M42x1 thread on Canon EF (-s). Industry with M39 thread for rangefinder cameras will only fit on mirrorless cameras without alterations. By ordering things from the links below, you help the project cover the costs of site maintenance and development. List of adapters, systems and mounts (direct links for ordering)
- Canon EF / EF-S adapter M42-Canon EOS (no chip or with chip ).
- Canon EF-M adapter M42- Canon EF -M .
- Nikon DX / FX as well as Fujifilm and Kodak with Nikon F mount M42-Nikon F adapter with and without lens .
- Nikon 1 adapter M42-Nikon 1 .
- Pentax K adapter the M42-Pentax K .
- Pentax Q adapter M42-Pentax Q .
- Sony / Minolta A M42-Sony A adapter ( without or with a chip ).
- Sony NEX and Sony Alpha E-mount adapter M42-Sony E (M42-Sony Nex) .
- Four Thirds, aka 4/3 (Olympus, Panasonic) M42-4 / 3 adapter
- Micro Four Thirds – Olympus, Panasonic, Kodak, Xiaomi with Micro 4/3 mount (Micro 4: 3) M42-Micro 4/3 adapter .
- For cameras with Fujifilm X mount, M42-Fuji X adapter .
- Samsung NX M42-Samsung NX adapter .
- Leica M adapter M42-L / M .
- To mount the adapter Leica T M42-L / T .
When ordering, it should be borne in mind that cheap adapters of poor quality with a lens on the Nikon F mount significantly spoil the picture. Adapters without a lens reduce the maximum focusing range (due to the difference in focal lengths). Adapters with chips come across of poor quality, exposure metering and confirmation of focus on some models of cameras may suffer from this.